Elaeagnus angustifolia is a shrub or small tree that can grow to 35 ft. (10 m) tall. The young branches are silvery while the older branches are brown. They are occasionally thorny and covered with scales.
The leaves are simple, alternate and lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate. They are 1-4 in. (3-10 cm) long and have silver scales on both sides.
The fragrant flowers are 0.5-0.6 in. (1.2-1.5 cm) wide, silvery outside and yellow within. There are 1-3 flowers within the leaf axils. They appear in May to June.
The fruit are 0.4 in. (1 cm) long, are yellow and almost completely covered by densely silver scales. The fruit contain one large seed that can be up to 0.4 in. (1 cm) long within.
These shrubs are highly competitive against native species, shading out shorter plants. Their nitrogen-fixing capabilities may adversely affect the nitrogen cycle of native communities that depend on infertile soils. Although Russian and autumn olive provide a plentiful source of berries for birds, their fruits are actually quite low in nutrients. Ecologists have found that bird species richness is higher in riparian areas dominated by native vegetation.
Both Russian and autumn olive were introduced into the United States in the 1800s. Prized for their silvery foliage, hardiness and plentiful berries, these shrubs were planted as ornamentals, for erosion control and windbreaks, and in wildlife food plots.
Forest, forest edge, meadows, fields, disturbed areas
Small yellow or white flowers become edible fruits in late summer and fall, which are red in autumn olive and orange in Russian olive.
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Fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica)
Autumn olive, Autumn olive, E Spinney, VT FPR