Japanese Knotweed

Fact SheetTreatmentFallopia japonica

Invader Images

    • Japanese knotweed infestation.
      Japanese knotweed infestation.
    • Seeds are triangular, and very small (~1/10").
      Seeds are triangular, and very small (~1/10").
    • Minute greenish-white flowers occur in sprays during the summer.
      Minute greenish-white flowers occur in sprays during the summer.
    • Leaves are large, with a squared off leaf base.
      Leaves are large, with a squared off leaf base.
    • New shoot of Japanese knotweed.
      New shoot of Japanese knotweed.
    • Japanese knotweed in winter
      Japanese knotweed in winter

Common Look-alikes

    • Invasive Japanese knotweed (left) looks like Giant knotweed (right), but has squared off leaf base, where Giant knotweed leaf base is more "heart-shaped"
      Invasive Japanese knotweed (left) looks like Giant knotweed (right), but has squared off leaf base, where Giant knotweed leaf base is more "heart-shaped"

Identification

Appearance

Japanese knotweed is an upright, shrublike, herbaceous perennial that can grow to over 10 feet in height. As with all members of this family, the base of the stem above each joint is surrounded by a membranous sheath.

Foliage

Stems of Japanese knotweed are smooth, stout and swollen at joints where the leaf meets the stem. Although leaf size may vary, they are normally about 6 inches long by 3 to 4 inches wide, broadly oval to somewhat triangular and pointed at the tip.

Flowers/ Fruit

The minute greenish-white flowers occur in attractive, branched sprays in summer and are followed soon after by small winged fruits. Seeds are triangular, shiny, and very small, about 1/10 inch long.

 

***Check out the downloadable fact sheet above***

Biology

Ecological Threat

Knotweeds are capable of quickly forming dense stands where they can crowd out native vegetation. Thickets can clog small waterways and displace streamside vegetation, increasing bank erosion and lowering the quality of riparian habitat for fish and wildlife. Once established, these stands are very difficult to eradicate.

ORIGIN

Both species of knotweed were introduced into North America for ornamental use and for forage and erosion control in the late 1800s.

HABITAT

Forest edges, meadows, fields, floodplains, disturbed areas

Life Cycle

The stems can reach heights of up to 10’ (3 m) tall, with some records indicating they can grow to 13’ (3.9 m) tall. The older shoots tend to get woody near the base as they age. Flowers emerge in late summer as small white to offwhite racemes / panicles. Pollination is by insects, primarily by bees. The three-winged seeds (Calyx) were often thought to be sterile; however, a basic germination test in NH showed that 95% of seeds collected from various populations were viable, but not seen as a significant vector for its spread.

Seedlings often succumb to frost, desiccation, shade, predation and smothering. The rooting system, which is composed of numerous intertwined rhizomes that can grow up to 3” (8 cm) in diameter, is the primary reproductive propagule that enables it to quickly spread to new locations. The rhizomes have the potential to spread laterally 23 to 65 feet (7-20 m) away from the crown. Most also have a deep taproot.

Based on the extensive rooting system, the majority (2/3) of Japanese knotweed plants occurs below ground. It helps to ensure the plant will rebound if damage to the shoots occurs. In addition, perennating buds found on the root crown and along the rhizomes will also react to shoot damage, i.e. mowing/cutting, by sending up additional shoots along the root. This typically results in radial/clonal spread of the plant and increases its shoot density.

Management Options

This species is Quarantined: Class B Noxious Weed

***Check out the downloadable treatment sheet above***

    Mechanical Control: 

    Cut stalks at least once per month throughout the growing season. Use a scythe, loppers or another method of cutting, depending upon the ground surface you are working on, being careful not to spread fragments (which can resprout). Repeat cuts for five years. Do not replant until the knotweed is under control and the plants are much smaller and have lost their vigor. Replant with good sized natives.

    Check out this video to learn more about Japanese knotweed control

    Chemical Control

    For small infestations: Cut stalks of knotweed in late June. Cut again after August 1 and drip a 18-25% glyphosate herbicide solution into the stems. An injector gun can also be used for application.

    For larger infestations: Cut the plants back in June. In late summer, use a low-volume foliar spray of 3-8% glyphosate. Spray only on nonwindy days and in patches that are absent of native species. Anytime you are near water, use aquatic formulations. The following year, spot-treat remaining plants.

     

    **Be careful not to damage or kill nearby native plants when conducting management work. And when using herbicides, always follow the instructions on the label.**

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