Yellow Flag Iris

Fact SheetIris pseudacorus

Invader Images

    • Yellow Iris Flower
      Yellow Iris Flower
    • Yellow Iris Fruit
      Yellow Iris Fruit
    • Yellow Iris Infestation
      Yellow Iris Infestation

Common Look-alikes

    • Harlequin Blue Flag- only looks alike when not in bloom
      Harlequin Blue Flag- only looks alike when not in bloom

Identification

Appearance

Iris pseudacorus is a herbaceous perennial that can grow up to 3-4 ft. (0.9-1.2 m) in height.

Foliage

Broad, sword-shaped leaves are stiff, erect and glaucous. They measure between 1.6-3.3 ft. (0.5-1 m) long and 0.4-1.2 in. (1-3 cm) wide. Rhizomes are pink-fleshed and 0.4-1.6 in. (1-4 cm) in diameter.

Flowers

Flowers are showy and bloom from April to June. Usually yellow, their color can range from nearly white to cream. Flowers are 2.75-3.5 in. (7-9 cm) wide. They are borne on erect peduncles with several flowers per stem. There are six perianth clawed segments. Three of these are upward-pointing petals and three are down-ward spreading sepals. Sepals often have purple, brown or red veins on their yellow surface.

Fruit

Fruits are 1.6-2.7 in. (4-8 cm) long capsules. The capsules are 6-angled and cylindric-prismatic to ellipsoid. The average capsule contains about 120 white seeds that harden and turn brown as they mature.

Biology

This species is Quarantined: Class B Noxious Weed

This is considered a watch list species

Origin

Native to Europe

Habitat

Floodplain Forest, Lake or Pond, River or Stream, Yard or Garden. Iris pseudacorus can be found along the edges of lakes, ponds, rivers and streams and immersed in water up to 25 cm (10 in.) deep. It grows well in freshwater wetlands and can tolerate high acidity. In its native habitat, Iris pseudacorus can tolerate living in the upper zones of salt marshes, where it may be surrounded by saline water. The plant also tends not to favor calcareous substrates, though there are exceptions to this, such as along the Housatonic River of Connecticut.

Life cycle

The showy flowers of Iris pseudacorus bloom from April to June. The fruits are 4-8 cm (1.6-2.7 in.) long capsules. These capsules are 6-angled and cylindric-prismatic to ellipsoid in shape. The average capsule contains around 120 seeds that start out white, then harden and turn brown as the season goes on.

Ecological Threat

Iris pseudacorus forms large clonal populations that displace native species. The rhizomes of this plant are able to survive rather heavy droughts. Both the rhizomes and seeds of this plant can be transported downstream, allowing for further spread of the plant. The seeds of Iris pseudacorus can germinate even after a wetland area burns. In its native habitat, this plant is not widely grazed because of the glycosides it contains, making it poisonous to grazing animals. No birds are known to disperse the seeds of this plant. Iris pseudacorus is still sold and used for water gardens. Caution should be used when hand-pulling this plant, as it can cause skin irritation.

Management Options

CAUTION! This plant contains toxins that cause minor skin irritation.

Wear appropriate clothing to prevent resinous substances from contacting skin.

Mechanical Control

Caution should be used if pulling out this plant because it can cause skin irritation; remove seed pods to help control population expansion; dig up small infestations; remove entire rhizome root system; use chopping machines for larger infestations; burn where conditions allow.

Chemical Control

It can be effectively controlled using any of several readily available general use herbicides such as glyphosate that is approved for wetland habitats. Follow label and state requirements.

**Be careful not to damage or kill nearby native plants when conducting management work. And when using herbicides, always follow the instructions on the label.**

Citations

Photo Credit

5387429, Joseph M. DiTomaso, University of California - Davis, Bugwood.org

5207011, 5207008, Nancy Loewenstein, Auburn University, Bugwood.org

5454510, Elmer Verhasselt, Bugwood.org

Information Credit 

Invasive Plant Atlas of New England

USDA Forest Service